Cancer: Overview, causes, treatments, and types

What to know about cancer

Many people in our surroundings are struggling with Cancer. In fact, Cancer is the second-leading reason of death in the world. You could have faced this deadly disease from a closer look, like any of your relatives or friends could be suffering from Cancer. It is wiser to have complete information about this disease so that you can stay alert and can give awareness to dear and dear ones.

Before looking for its symptoms and treatment let’s just understand, “what Cancer is?”

Cancer is a quite broader term, since it explains the disease which results due to uncontrolled growth and division of cells. Cancer may grow anywhere in the body, it initiates when cells get uncontrolled and crowd out the normal cells. This way it gets harder for your body to work like the way it must.

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Some categories of cancer lead to fastest cell growth; however, others may cause the cells to grow and divide at a slower pace. Cancer can spread throughout the whole body at a faster rate.

Causes of Cancer

 There is not any single factor that is the cause of Cancer.  According to the Researchers, it is the interaction of many factors that leads to such deadly disease. The following are the risk-factors that have been seen to contribute to cancer:

  • Factors related to lifestyle

Working with toxic chemicals, Smoking, consumption of high-fat diet is the factors related to lifestyle choices that could lead to cancer.

  • Family History

Inheritance, genetics, and family history play a crucial role in some childhood cancers. Cancer of distinct forms can be present more than once in the family.

  • Genetic Disorders

The genetic disorders like Beckwith-Wiedemann and Wiskott-Aldrich may alter the immune system of the body. The immune system plays a significant role to protect our body from disease and infection. The reason of the defect in stem cells could be linked with inherited genetic defect or overexposure to a toxin or virus.

  • Environmental Exposure

The direct link of childhood cancer has been seen with Pesticides, Fertilizers, and Power lines. However, it’s still not known that prenatal exposure to these agents causes cancer or it’s just a coincidence.

Symptoms of Cancer

The symptoms of cancer could vary according to the part of body influenced by Cancer. There are potential symptoms for early cancer and certain particular forms of cancer. Any of the symptoms and signs of cancer or less extreme diseases may be notified. Some of the signs and symptoms could be notified as the result of cancer or less serious illnesses.

General Signs and Symptoms:

  • Pelvic pain or abnormality in periods

Continuous pain or changes in menstrual cycle could be the symptom of cervical, uterine, or ovarian cancer.

  • Bloating

Persistent bloating for more than a period of two weeks could be a symptom of ovarian cancer and gastrointestinal cancer.

  • Breast Changes

Some changes in breast include dimpling, a new lump, discolouring, some changes around the nipple or discharge that you never had before.

  • Coughing

 A dry cough that does not go for more than two weeks could be a symptom of lung cancer.

  • Chronic Headache

A headache that doesn’t respond to the medication and lasts for more than two weeks could be a symptom of brain tumor.

  • Over bruising

Getting bruises suddenly on unusual places could be a symptom of distinct blood cancers.

  • Oral Changes

Continual sores or lesions in the mouth, especially for the people who smoke or drink excessively could be an indication of oral cancer.

  • Fatigue

No matter how much you sleep, a sudden change in the energy level of your body could be symptom of lymphoma or leukemia.

Types of Cancer

As per the survey, the most common type of cancer is breast cancer that is followed by lung cancer and prostate cancer. There are following types of cancers usually examined:

  • Breast
  • Lung
  • Colon and Rectal
  • Bladder
  • Kidney
  • Leukemia
  • Endometrial
  • Liver
  • Pancreatic
  • Melanoma
  • Thyroid

According to National Cancer Institute, there are over 100 types of less common cancers.

Treatment of Cancer

Innovative research has geared up the development of new medications and technologies for treatment. The treatment is prescribed by the doctors according to the type of cancer and its stage. Below are some cancer treatments:

  • Chemotherapy

This therapy targets to kill the cancerous cells with medications that targets faster diving cells. The drugs may also assist to shrink tumours; however, there could be some severe side effects.

  • Hormone Therapy

It includes taking medications that may alter the way how some hormones work or it may interferes the ability of the body to produce these. In breast cancer and prostate cancer, in which hormones play a crucial role, this is a common approach.

  • Immunotherapy

To boost the immune system and to fight the cancerous cells, immunotherapy is used. Checkpoint inhibitors and adoptive cell transfer are two examples of these treatments.

  • Radiation Therapy

To kill the cancerous cells, it uses high-dose radiation.  To shrink a tumour before the surgery or to lower the tumour-related symptoms, a doctor could recommend using radiation.

  • Stem Cell

For people with blood-related cancers, like leukemia and lymphoma, stem cell transplant could be beneficial. It includes removing red or white blood cells that radiation or chemotherapy has destroyed. Then the lab technicians strengthen the cells and put them back to the body.

  • Surgery

 Surgery is also a part of the treatment plan in which the person has a cancerous tumour. To prevent the disease from spreading, the surgeon might remove lymph nodes to lower or prevent the disease from spreading.


The cancer leads to divide the cells uncontrollably. It prevents them to die at the natural point in their life cycle. Some lifestyle choices and genetic factors like smoking may contribute in the development of this disease.

The treatments of cancer are improvising at the constant rate. Some examples of current methods include chemotherapy, surgery, and radiation therapy. Due to proper diagnosis and advanced treatments, the death rates of cancer are dropping every year.

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